# cf.Data.sd¶

Data.sd(axes=None, squeeze=False, mtol=1, weights=None, ddof=0, inplace=False, i=False, _preserve_partitions=False)[source]

Collapse axes by calculating their standard deviation.

The standard deviation may be adjusted for the number of degrees of freedom and may be calculated with weighted values.

Missing data array elements and those with zero weight are omitted from the calculation.

The unweighted standard deviation, $$s$$, of $$N$$ values $$x_i$$ with mean $$m$$ and with $$N-ddof$$ degrees of freedom ($$ddof\ge0$$) is:

$s=\sqrt{\frac{1}{N-ddof} \sum_{i=1}^{N} (x_i - m)^2}$

The weighted standard deviation, $$\tilde{s}_N$$, of $$N$$ values $$x_i$$ with corresponding weights $$w_i$$, weighted mean $$\tilde{m}$$ and with $$N$$ degrees of freedom is:

$\tilde{s}_N=\sqrt{\frac{1}{\sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i} \sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i(x_i - \tilde{m})^2}$

The weighted standard deviation, $$\tilde{s}$$, of $$N$$ values $$x_i$$ with corresponding weights $$w_i$$ and with $$N-ddof$$ degrees of freedom ($$ddof>0$$) is:

$\tilde{s} = \sqrt{\frac{f \sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i}{f \sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i - ddof}} \tilde{s}_N$

where $$f$$ is the smallest positive number whose product with each weight is an integer. $$f \sum_{i=1}^{N} w_i$$ is the size of a new sample created by each $$x_i$$ having $$fw_i$$ repeats. In practice, $$f$$ may not exist or may be difficult to calculate, so $$f$$ is either set to a predetermined value or an approximate value is calculated. The approximation is the smallest positive number whose products with the smallest and largest weights and the sum of the weights are all integers, where a positive number is considered to be an integer if its decimal part is sufficiently small (no greater than $$10^{-8}$$ plus $$10^{-5}$$ times its integer part). This approximation will never overestimate $$f$$, so $$\tilde{s}$$ will never be underestimated when the approximation is used. If the weights are all integers which are collectively coprime then setting $$f=1$$ will guarantee that $$\tilde{s}$$ is exact.

Parameters
axes(sequence of) int, optional

The axes to be collapsed. By default flattened input is used. Each axis is identified by its integer position. No axes are collapsed if axes is an empty sequence.

squeezebool, optional

If True then collapsed axes are removed. By default the axes which are collapsed are left in the result as axes with size 1. When the collapsed axes are retained, the result is guaranteed to broadcast correctly against the original array.

Parameter example:

Suppose that an array, d, has shape (2, 3, 4) and e = d.sd(axis=1). Then e has shape (2, 1, 4) and, for example, d/e is allowed. If e = d.sd(axis=1, squeeze=True) then e will have shape (2, 4) and d/e is an illegal operation.

weightsdata-like or dict, optional

Weights associated with values of the array. By default all non-missing elements of the array are assumed to have equal weights of 1. If weights is a data-like object then it must have either the same shape as the array or, if that is not the case, the same shape as the axes being collapsed. If weights is a dictionary then each key is axes of the array (an int or tuple of ints) with a corresponding data-like value of weights for those axes. In this case, the implied weights array is the outer product of the dictionary’s values it may be used in conjunction with any value of axes, because the axes to which the weights apply are given explicitly.

Parameter example:

Suppose that the original array being collapsed has shape (2, 3, 4) and weights is set to a data-like object, w. If axes=None then w must have shape (2, 3, 4). If axes=(0, 1, 2) then w must have shape (2, 3, 4). If axes=(2, 0, 1) then w must either have shape (2, 3, 4) or else (4, 2, 3). If axes=1 then w must either have shape (2, 3, 4) or else (3,). If axes=(2, 0) then w must either have shape (2, 3, 4) or else (4, 2). Suppose weights is a dictionary. If weights={1: x} then x must have shape (3,). If weights={1: x, (2, 0): y} then x must have shape (3,) and y must have shape (4, 2). The last example is equivalent to weights={(1, 2, 0): x.outerproduct(y)} (see outerproduct for details).

mtolnumber, optional

For each element in the output data array, the fraction of contributing input array elements which is allowed to contain missing data. Where this fraction exceeds mtol, missing data is returned. The default is 1, meaning a missing datum in the output array only occurs when its contributing input array elements are all missing data. A value of 0 means that a missing datum in the output array occurs whenever any of its contributing input array elements are missing data. Any intermediate value is permitted.

ddofnumber, optional

The delta degrees of freedom. The number of degrees of freedom used in the calculation is (N-ddof) where N represents the number of elements. By default ddof is 0

inplace: bool, optional

If True then do the operation in-place and return None.

i: deprecated at version 3.0.0

Returns

Examples:

>>> d = cf.Data([1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4])
>>> e = cf.Data([1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> d.sd(squeeze=False)
<CF Data: [1.06262254195] >
>>> d.sd()
<CF Data: 1.06262254195 >
>>> e.sd(weights=[2, 3, 5, 6])
<CF Data: 1.09991882817 >
>>> e.sd(weights=[2, 3, 5, 6], f=1)
<CF Data: 1.06262254195 >
>>> d.sd(ddof=0)
<CF Data: 1.02887985207 >
>>> e.sd(ddof=0, weights=[2, 3, 5, 6])
<CF Data: 1.02887985207 >