Version for version 1.11 of the CF conventions.

Two levels of implementation

The basic requirement of the reference implementation is to represent the logical CF data model in memory with a package of Python classes, with no further features. However, in order to be useful the implementation must also have the practical functionality to read and write netCDF datasets, and inspect CF data model constructs.

In order to satisfy both needs there is a stand-alone core implementation, the cfdm.core package, that includes no functionality beyond that mandated by the CF data model (and therefore excludes any information about the netCDF encoding of constructs). The core implementation provides the basis (via inheritance) for the cfdm package that allows, in addition, the reading and writing of netCDF datasets, as well as comprehensive inspection capabilities and extra field and domain construct modification capabilities.

CF conventions

The CF data model does not enforce the CF conventions. CF-compliance is the responsibility of the user. For example, a “units” property whose value is not a valid UDUNITS string is not CF-compliant, but is allowed by the CF data model. This is also true, in general, for the cfdm package. The few exceptions to this occur when field and domain constructs are read from, or written to, a netCDF file: it may not be possible to parse a non-CF-compliant netCDF variable or attribute to create an unambiguous CF data model construct; or create an unambiguous netCDF variable or attribute from a non-CF-compliant CF data model construct.


The cfdm package has, with few exceptions, only the functionality required to read and write datasets, and to create, modify and inspect field and domain constructs in memory.

The cfdm package is not, and is not meant to be, a general analysis package. Therefore it can’t, for example, regrid field constructs to new domains, perform statistical collapses, combine field constructs arithmetically, etc. It has, however, been designed to be extensible to facilitate the creation of other packages that build on this cfdm implementation whilst also adding extra, higher level functionality.

The cf-python and cf-plot packages, that are built on top of the cfdm package, include much more higher level functionality.


The design of an application programming interface (API) needs to strike a balance between being verbose and terse. A verbose API is easier to understand and is more memorable, but usually involves more typing; whilst a terse API is more efficient for the experienced user. The cfdm package has aimed for an API that is more at the verbose end of the spectrum: in general it does not use abbreviations for method and parameter names, and each method performs a sole function.