cf.Field.where¶

Field.
where
(condition, x=None, y=None, inplace=False, construct=None, i=False, verbose=None, item=None, **item_options)[source]¶ Assign to data elements depending on a condition.
Data can be changed by assigning to elements that are selected by a condition based on the data values of the field construct or on its metadata constructs.
Different values can be assigned to where the conditions are, and are not, met.
Missing data
Data array elements may be set to missing values by assigning them to the
cf.masked
constant, or by assignment missing data elements of arrayvalued x and y parameters.By default the data mask is “hard”, meaning that masked values can not be changed by assigning them to another value. This behaviour may be changed by setting the
hardmask
attribute of the field construct toFalse
, thereby making the data mask “soft” and allowing masked elements to be set to nonmasked values. Parameters
 condition:
The condition which determines how to assign values to the data.
In general it may be any scalar or arraylike object (such as a
numpy
,Data
orField
object) that is broadcastable to the shape of the data. Assignment from the x and y parameters will be done where elements of the condition evaluate toTrue
andFalse
respectively. Parameter example:
f.where(f.data<0, x=999)
will set all data values that are less than zero to 999. Parameter example:
f.where(True, x=999)
will set all data values to 999. This is equivalent tof[...] = 999
. Parameter example:
f.where(False, y=999)
will set all data values to 999. This is equivalent tof[...] = 999
. Parameter example:
If field construct
f
has shape(5, 3)
thenf.where([True, False, True], x=999, y=cf.masked)
will set data values in columns 0 and 2 to 999, and data values in column 1 to missing data. This works because the condition has shape(3,)
which broadcasts to the field construct’s shape.
If, however, condition is a
Query
object then this implies a condition defined by applying the query to the field construct’s data (or a metadata construct’s data if the construct parameter is set). Parameter example:
f.where(cf.lt(0), x=999)
will set all data values that are less than zero to 999. This is equivalent tof.where(f.data<0, x=999)
.
If condition is another field construct then it is first transformed so that it is broadcastable to the data being assigned to. This is done by using the metadata constructs of the two field constructs to create a mapping of physically identical dimensions between the fields, and then manipulating the dimensions of other field construct’s data to ensure that they are broadcastable. If either of the field constructs does not have sufficient metadata to create such a mapping then an exception will be raised. In this case, any manipulation of the dimensions must be done manually, and the
Data
instance of construct (rather than the field construct itself) may be used for the condition. Parameter example:
If field construct
f
has shape(5, 3)
andg = f.transpose() < 0
thenf.where(g, x=999)
will set all data values that are less than zero to 999, provided there are sufficient metadata for the data dimensions to be mapped. However,f.where(g.data, x=999)
will always fail in this example, because the shape of the condition is(3, 5)
, which does not broadcast to the shape of thef
.
 x, y: optional
Specify the assignment values. Where the condition evaluates to
True
, assign to the field construct’s data from x, and where the condition evaluates toFalse
, assign to the field construct’s data from y. The x and y parameters are each one of:
 Parameter example:
f.where(condition)
, for anycondition
, returns a field construct with identical data values. Parameter example:
f.where(cf.lt(0), x=f.data, y=cf.masked)
will change the sign of all negative data values, and set all other data values to missing data.
If x or y is another field construct then it is first transformed so that its data is broadcastable to the data being assigned to. This is done by using the metadata constructs of the two field constructs to create a mapping of physically identical dimensions between the fields, and then manipulating the dimensions of other field construct’s data to ensure that they are broadcastable. If either of the field constructs does not have sufficient metadata to create such a mapping then an exception will be raised. In this case, any manipulation of the dimensions must be done manually, and the
Data
instance of x or y (rather than the field construct itself) may be used for the condition. Parameter example:
If field construct
f
has shape(5, 3)
andg = f.transpose() * 10
thenf.where(cf.lt(0), x=g)
will set all data values that are less than zero to the equivalent elements of field constructg
, provided there are sufficient metadata for the data dimensions to be mapped. However,f.where(cf.lt(0), x=g.data)
will always fail in this example, because the shape of the condition is(3, 5)
, which does not broadcast to the shape of thef
.
 construct:
str
, optional Define the condition by applying the construct parameter to the given metadata construct’s data, rather then the data of the field construct. Must be
The identity or key of a metadata coordinate construct that has data.
The construct parameter selects the metadata construct that is returned by this call of the field construct’s
construct
method:f.construct(construct)
. Seecf.Field.construct
for details. Parameter example:
f.where(cf.wi(30, 30), x=cf.masked, construct='latitude')
will set all data values within 30 degrees of the equator to missing data.
 inplace:
bool
, optional If True then do the operation inplace and return
None
. i: deprecated at version 3.0.0
Use the inplace parameter instead.
 item: deprecated at version 3.0.0
Use the construct parameter instead.
item_options: deprecated at version 3.0.0
 Returns
Examples:
Set data array values to 15 everywhere:
>>> f.where(True, 15)
This example could also be done with subspace assignment:
>>> f[...] = 15
Set all negative data array values to zero and leave all other elements unchanged:
>>> g = f.where(f<0, 0)
Multiply all positive data array elements by 1 and set other data array elements to 3.14:
>>> g = f.where(f>0, f, 3.14)
Set all values less than 280 and greater than 290 to missing data:
>>> g = f.where((f < 280)  (f > 290), cf.masked)
This example could also be done with a
Query
object:>>> g = f.where(cf.wo(280, 290), cf.masked)
or equivalently:
>>> g = f.where(f==cf.wo(280, 290), cf.masked)
Set data array elements in the northern hemisphere to missing data inplace:
>>> condition = f.domain_mask(latitude=cf.ge(0)) >>> f.where(condition, cf.masked, inplace=True)
Missing data can only be changed if the mask is “soft”:
>>> f[0] = cf.masked >>> g = f.where(True, 99) >>> print(g[0],array) [] >>> f.hardmask = False >>> g = f.where(True, 99) >>> print(g[0],array) [99]
This inplace example could also be done with subspace assignment by indices:
>>> northern_hemisphere = f.indices(latitude=cf.ge(0)) >>> f.subspace[northern_hemisphere] = cf.masked
Set a polar rows to their zonalmean values:
>>> condition = f.domain_mask(latitude=cf.set([90, 90])) >>> g = f.where(condition, f.collapse('longitude: mean'))